Wednesday, June 14, 2006
CAGAYAN DE ORO CITY (MIKE BAÑOS / June 13) – There are now two initiatives underway in the Philippine Senate to recognize the forgotten Katipunan revolt of Mindanao and recognize it by altering how the present Philippine flag looks like, one which has been continuing for some time now and another more recent.
Senator Aquilino "Nene" Q. Pimentel, Jr., a native son of Cagayan de Oro, has long been advocating for a ninth ray in the Philippine flag in recognition of the Moros indefatigable struggle for independence against the Spaniards.
"I have delivered speeches on it but I do not know whether I still have copies of the speeches," he wrote in reply to an email last Monday. "Today at the Pinaglaban Independence Day Rites, I reiterated it. I said that the Moros of Mindanao deserve a 9th ray in the Flag."
More recently, Senator Richard Gordon has been laying the ground work for the petition to add a ninth ray to the sun depicted in the Philippine flag, (which as every schoolboy and schoolgirl knows, represents the first eight provinces in Luzon which rose in the fight for freedom against Spain in 1896) in recognition of the "Mutiny at Calaganan" as the first Katipunan instigated revolt in Mindanao.
In fact, it was not only the Moros as represented by a group of Maranaos from Balo-i, Lanao del Norte, but in fact all three of Mindanao's tri-people who joined in the revolt: the Christian immigrants, the indigenous natives in the person of 50 Higaonons from Bukidnon, and a group of Moros from Lanao, making it not only a Katipunan revolt, but one in which all three of Mindanao's tri-people joined in as well.
Antonio J. Montalvan II, a local historian of note and a former member of the Cagayan de Oro City Historical and Cultural Commission, says that what local history has heretofore named as the "Calaganan Mutiny" was apparently not a mutiny at all, but a true-blue revolucion sparked by the Katipuneros of Luzon.
Montalvan admits a direct link between the Katipunan uprising in Luzon and the Calaganan Mutiny has yet to be established 'beyond a reasonable doubt', but there appears to be extant sources which appear to indicate that such a link did exist, and that Pio Valenzuela did indeed come to Mindanao on the instructions of Andres Bonifacio to foment a revolt against the Spaniards.
"Should a direct link be established between Bonifacio's Katipunan revolt in Luzon and the Calaganan Mutiny, then the people of Mindanao can rightfully petition the national government to add a ninth ray to the sun in the Philippine flag," Montalvan said.
What needs to be done at this point is to verify primary sources such as the Consular Letters of the French Embassy in Manila to Paris where the Calaganan Mutiny is described in detail, Montalvan added.
The letters are now in the archives of the National Museum in Manila, as are other extant documents like the historical account of the Jesuit historian Pablo Pastells in which the "Calaganan Mutiny" is also described in detail.
The Calaganan Mutiny is also detailed in the letters of Vicente Elio y Sanchez of Camiguin to the Manila-based Spanish newspaper La Oceania Española and two other historical sources but has never been linked to the "First Cry of Balintawak" led by Andres Bonifacio. One reason for this could be that Elio's letters never got past Spanish censors anxious to douse the flickering flames of revolution which had broken out in Luzon.
In late August of 1896, the Katipunan uprising against Spain had broken out in Luzon. Exactly a month later, or September 29, 1896, the mutiny exploded among the so-called Disciplinarios, a group of Filipinos from Luzon deported to the Spanish fort in Calaganan for training in military discipline to fight against the Moros of Lanao. Upon receiving instructions from the Katipunan in Manila, they raided the Spanish armory and proceeded to Cagayan to attack the town, being joined by some Moros (Some oral accounts claim that most of the Disciplinarios were in fact Katipuneros who were arrested by the Spaniards after the first salvo in Pugad Lawin or covertly sent to Mindanao to start another uprising there).
On the way, they ransacked convents and homes of Spanish peninsulars. However, a joint force of Spanish soldiers led by the Gobernadorcillo Juan de Pratts and Tercio de Voluntarios de Cagayan (volunteers, among them local hero Apolinar Velez) repulsed the Disciplinarios in Sta. Ana, Tagoloan.
From Cagayan, the rebeldes proceeded to Sumilao, Bukidnon where they were joined by a band of 50 Higa-onons. They next attacked Balingasag, and raided the outpost of Gingoog on January 1897. By that time, news of Rizal's execution had reached Cagayan and Misamis, and this further stoked the anger of the town folk, fanning the flames of the local Katipuneros. It took the Spanish gunboat Mariveles, recalled from the Tercio Distrito de Surigao, to finally subdue the resistance in Gingoog.
This was the only known Katipunan revolt in the whole of Mindanao which occurred at about the same time as the general uprising in Luzon, but two-time Palanca-award grand prize winner Antonio Enriquez says there was one other which occurred later (1898) in Zamboanga which successfully ousted the Spaniards and established the Zamboanga Republic under General Vicente Alvarez in that rinconcito de España, only to sputter later against the superior firepower of invading U.S. forces.
What appears to be remarkable about the 'Calaganan Mutiny' is that besides happening at approximately the same time as the Katipunan revolt in Luzon, there is apparently a direct link between it and the Katipunan revolt in the person of Pio Valenzuela, a cousin of the woman amazon Arcadia Valenzuela of Lapasan, Cagayan de Misamis (as Cagayan de Oro was then known) who visited Mindanao during this period (ostensibly on instructions from Andres Bonifacio himself!) to instigate a similar revolt in Mindanao.
Augustinian Recollect chronicles confirm that this revolt was in fact instigated by a communication from Katipuneros in Luzon, making Mindanao the ninth province to join the Katipunan revolt, albeit not included in the eight rays of the sun in the Philippine flag which represent the eight provinces which first rose in revolt against Spanish tyranny.